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家长在为孩子安装跟踪应用程序前要三思
2019-05-21 土拨鼠之日 2108 0 0  



The use of self-tracking and personal surveillancetechnologies has grown considerably over the last decade. There are now apps tomonitor people’s movement, health, mindfulness, sleep, eating habits and evensexual activity.
Some of the more thorny problems arise from appsdesigned to track others, like those made for parents to track their kids. Forexample, there are specific apps that allow parents to monitor their child’sGPS location, who they call, what they text, which apps they use, what theyview online and the phone number of their contacts.

在过去十年中,自我跟踪和个人监控技术的使用有了很大的增长。现在有一些应用程序可以监测人们的运动、健康、专注力、睡眠、饮食习惯,甚至是性行为。
那些用来跟踪他人的应用程序(比如为父母跟踪孩子而设计的应用程序)带来了一些棘手的问题。例如,有些应用程序可以让父母监控孩子的GPS位置、给谁打了电话、发了什么短信、用了什么应用程序、在网上浏览了什么内容以及联系人的电话号码。

As a bioethicist who specializes in the ethics ofemerging technologies, I worry that such tracking technologies are transformingprudent parenting into surveillance parenting.
Here are three reasons why.

作为一个专门研究新兴技术伦理的生物伦理学家,我担心这种跟踪技术正在将谨慎型育儿方式转变为监控型育儿方式。
原因有以下三点。

1. Companies are tracking for profit
The first reason has to do with concerns over thetech itself.
Tracking apps are not primarily designed to keepchildren safe or help with parenting. They are designed to make money bygathering loads of information to be sold to other companies.
A 2017 report from a marketing research firmestimates that self-monitoring technologies for healthalone will reach gross revenues of US$71.9 billion by 2022.
The lion’s share of the profit is not in the deviceitself, but in the data drawn from its users.

1. 企业的目的是追求利润
第一个原因与对科技本身的担忧有关。
跟踪应用程序的设计初衷并非保证孩子们的安全或是帮助家长什么的。他们的目的是通过收集大量信息然后卖给其他公司来赚钱。
据一家市场研究公司2017年的一份报告估计,到2022年,仅健康自我监测技术就将带来719亿美元的总收入。
利润的绝大部分不在于跟踪设备本身,而在于从用户那里获得的数据。

To get as much data as they can, these apps workhard to keep one constantly using them via push notifications and other designtechniques.
This data is then often sold to other companies –including advertising agencies and political campaign firms. The primary aim ofthese devices is not people’s well-being, but the profit that can be made offof their data.
When parents track children, they help companiesmaximize their profits. Should a child’s information become de-anonymized andfall into the wrong hands, this could put one’s child at risk.

为了获得尽可能多的数据,这些应用程序通过推送通知服务和其他技术来努力抓住用户。
这些数据通常会被卖给其他公司,包括广告公司和政治竞选公司。这些设备的主要目的不是为了人们幸福,而是从他们的数据中获得利润。
当父母跟踪孩子时,他们也在帮助公司实现利润最大化。如果孩子的信息被去匿名化并落入坏人之手,可能会使孩子处于危险之中。

2. Risks of leaking private data
There are also significant privacy risks.
A 2014 study by the security firm Symantec foundthat even devices that do not appear to be traceable can still be trackedwirelessly, as a result of insufficient privacy features.

2. 有泄露私人数据的风险
此外,还有很大的隐私风险。
赛门铁克公司2014年的一项研究发现,由于隐私保护功能的不完善,即便是那些看上去无法跟踪的设备,也能被无线跟踪。
(译者注:赛门铁克是信息安全领域全球领先的公司。)



That same year, a study by computer scientists atthe University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign found that many Android mobile healthapplications, for example, send unencrypted information over the Internet.Nearly all of these apps monitor one’s location. Researchers at MIT and theCatholic University of Louvain found that just four time-stamped locationscould uniquely identify 95% of individuals, making promises of anonymityhollow.
Information related to people’s whereabouts canreveal valuable data about them. In the case of children, their tracking datacould very easily be used by someone else.

同一年,伊利诺伊大学厄巴纳-香槟分校的计算机学家进行的一项研究发现,许多安卓的移动健康应用程序都通过互联网发送未经加密的信息。几乎所有这些应用程序都会监控用户的位置。麻省理工学院和鲁汶天主教大学的研究人员发现,仅仅需要四个有时间戳的地点就能识别95%的个体,这使得“匿名”这一承诺无比空洞。
有关人们行踪的信息会暴露与他们有关的有价值的数据。就儿童而言,他们的跟踪数据很容易被其他人利用。

3. It can break trust
Another reason why tracking one’s child isworrisome has to do with the risk of breaking their trust.
Social scientists have shown that trust is centralto close relationships, including healthy parent-child relationships. It isnecessary for the development of commitment and feelings of security. A child’ssense of personal privacy is a crucial component of this trust.
A 2019 study shows monitoring a child can underminethe sense of trust and bonding. In fact, it can become counterproductive to thepoint of pushing the child further towards rebellion.
This risk, I would argue, is perhaps far moreserious than those leading parents to track their children in the first place.

3. 会破坏孩子的信任感
另一个原因是,跟踪自己的孩子可能会破坏他们的信任感。
社会学家已经证明,信任是亲密关系的核心,包括健康的亲子关系。它对于培养责任感和安全感是非常重要的。孩子的个人隐私感是这种信任的重要组成部分。
2019年的一项研究表明,监控孩子会破坏他们的信任感和亲密感。事实上,甚至会把孩子推向叛逆的深渊。

A few exceptions
While I think that tracking one’s child is oftenunethical, there are some cases where it may be warranted.
If a parent has good reasons to suspect that theirchild is suicidal, involved in violent extremism, or engaged in otheractivities that threaten their life or that of others, the best course ofaction may involve breaking trust, invading privacy and monitoring the child.
But those are the exceptions, not the rule. Thinktwice before tracking your kids.

少数例外:
虽然我认为跟踪自己的孩子通常是不道德的,但也有一些有必要这样做的情况。
如果父母有充分的理由怀疑他们的孩子有自杀倾向,卷入暴力极端主义,或从事其他威胁到他们或其他人生命的活动,最好的做法可能就是破坏信任感、侵犯隐私、监控孩子了。
但这些都是例外,在跟踪你的孩子之前还是要三思而后行。

(评论部分)

Martin Engelbrecht
Parents in the west have a tendency to over protecttheir young adults.
As parents we need to be continually explaining toour young adults the consequences for their actions. No to say don’t haveunprotected sex, how would you like HIV or a child now.

西方的父母有溺爱孩子的倾向。
作为父母,我们需要不断地向年轻人解释他们行为的后果。不要说“不要进行无保护措施的性行为”,而是问“你现在是想要艾滋病毒还是想要孩子?”

Explain possible consequences for poor decisions.Parents are continually running after these adults and stopping them fromthinking it’s an American mindset. The school system in Finnland is making thescholars think. We need to get as far away from the American mindsetas possible it’s toxic.

向他们解释错误的决定可能会带来的后果。家长们总是跟在这些成年人屁股后面,阻止他们思考——这是美国人的心态。芬兰的学校制度让学者们有所思考。我们要尽可能远离美国人的思维定式,这种思维定式是有害的。

Jon Cloke
Many years ago I put a tracker on the desktop thatmy step-children used, a while after I moved in with my partner. It allowed meto see everything they looked at, emails, the whole nine yards.
This allowed me to:

许多年前,在我搬去和我的伴侣一起住了一段时间后,我在我继子的桌面上放了一个跟踪器。这让我能够看到他们看的所有东西,电子邮件(所有的)。
这使我能够:

1) See when the youngest was making arrangementswith his mates to truant from school and tell the school in advance when thiswas going to happen
2) Be forewarned when (again) the youngest fell outwith his friends at primary school and they told him by email they were goingto beat him up - I went round to their houses and told their parents and thatwas the end of that

1)看到最小的那个孩子是什么时候和他的同学们安排逃学的,提前告诉学校这件事什么时候会发生
2)当最小的那个孩子(又是他)在小学和他的朋友们闹翻了,他们通过电子邮件告诉他他们要打他的时候,我去了他们家,告诉了他们的父母,事情就这样结束了

3) Intercept an email from a girl who claimed thatthe middle kid (a girl) was flirting with her boyfriend and that she was goingto come to my step-kid’s school and stab her. This email was sent from theaccount of the boy alleged to have been flirted with and I scared the shit outof him so badly my step-daughter never heard word one out of either of themagain

3)拦截一封来自一个女孩的电子邮件,她声称中间大的那个孩子(一个女孩)正在和她的男朋友调情,她要来我继子的学校刺伤她。这封邮件是从那个男孩(那个女孩的男朋友)的邮箱发出的,我把他吓得屁滚尿流,我的继女再也没有听到过他们两人的任何消息

The kinds of bad behaviour that children get up tohas been made much, much worse by social media and the online world, IMHO, andthe consequences are around us every day - bullying deaths, grooming ofchildren by paedophiles, etc. etc.
In the face of that reality, the arguments hereabout ‘respect’ and ‘privacy’ are frankly stupid. As far as I’m concerned, ifyou don’t take care to know what kinds of things are coming at your childonline, you’re failing as a parent.

社交媒体和网络世界让孩子们养成的各种不良行为变得越来越糟糕,其后果每天都出现在我们身边——欺凌致死、恋童癖者给孩子梳洗等等。
面对这样的现实,这里关于“尊重”和“隐私”的讨论显然是愚蠢的。在我看来,如果你不注意了解你的孩子在网上会遇到什么样的事情,你就是一个失败的家长。